Diagnosis. An alkaline urine sample is a possible sign of P. mirabilis. It can be diagnosed in the lab due to characteristic swarming motility, and inability to metabolize lactose (on a MacConkey agar plate, for example).
Cystitis (bladder infection) symptoms are easier to distinguish and include back pain, concentrated appearance, urgency, hematuria (presence of red blood cells in the urine), and suprapubic pain as well as increased frequency of urination and pyuria.
Likewise, how common is Proteus mirabilis? P. mirabilis is also a common agent of Gram-negative bacteremia, particularly in patients with concurrent UTI; in recent studies, this species was found in 5-20% of these cases and as high as a 50% mortality rate in geriatric patients (13-16).
Then, where is Proteus mirabilis found?
Proteus is found abundantly in soil and water, and although it is part of the normal human intestinal flora (along with Klebsiella species, and Escherichia coli), it has been known to cause serious infections in humans.
Is Proteus mirabilis dangerous?
Proteus mirabilis bacteria can cause wound infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and urinary tract infections, and rarely, sepsis and diarrhoea.
What Antibiotics kill Proteus mirabilis?
The most appropriate treatment for P. mirabilis may be aminoglycosides, carbapenems (except imipenem), and 3rd generation cephalosporins. Recent P. mirabilis isolates were also mostly susceptible to augmentin, ampicillin-sulbactam, and piperacillin/tazobactam.
Is Proteus mirabilis hard to get rid of?
Proteus is a particularly toxic, difficult-to treat bacterium that can become resistant to antibiotics. Proteus produces the enzyme urease, which can reduce the acidity of the urine, allowing stones to form.
What does Proteus mirabilis look like?
Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It shows swarming motility and urease activity. P. mirabilis causes 90% of all Proteus infections in humans.
How do you get Proteus infection?
Infection occurs either by migration of bacteria up the catheter along the mucosal sheath or by migration up the catheter lumen from infected urine. UTIs are the most common clinical manifestation of Proteus infections.
What does Proteus mirabilis smell like?
Proteus Mirabilis. A surprisingly common cause of UTIs. It smells like old garbage when grown on agar plates, although others claim it smells like burnt chocolate or cocoa.
Is Proteus mirabilis contagious?
Proteus Mirabilis Causes The gastrointestinal tract is home to millions and millions of bacteria, one being Proteus mirabilis. Normally, this bacteria is non-pathogenic, meaning that it does not cause infection or disease. However, if Proteus mirabilis gets into the urinary tract, it can become pathogenic.
Is Proteus mirabilis sexually transmitted?
mirabilis causes 90% of all Proteus infections in humans. Infections caused by P. Urinary tract infections caused by P. mirabilis also occur commonly in sexually active women and men, especially those engaging in unprotected intercourse.
What is the best antibiotic for Proteus mirabilis?
P mirabilis is likely to be sensitive to ampicillin; broad-spectrum penicillins (eg, ticarcillin, piperacillin); first-, second-, and third-generation cephalosporins; imipenem; and aztreonam. P vulgaris and P penneri are resistant to ampicillin and first-generation cephalosporins.
How is Proteus mirabilis different from Proteus vulgaris?
Proteus mirabilis (indole negative) is the most frequent Proteus species associated with urinary tract infections, but indole-positive Proteus species like Pr. vulgaris, which are more often resistant to ampicillin, may also cause urinary tract infections. These species are often associated with an alkaline urine.
How do you treat Proteus mirabilis UTI?
For hospitalized patients, therapy consists of parenteral (or oral once the oral route is available) ceftriaxone, quinolone, gentamicin (plus ampicillin), or aztreonam until defervescence. Then, an oral quinolone, cephalosporin, or TMP/SMZ for 14 days may be added to complete treatment.
Does Proteus mirabilis cause kidney stones?
mirabilis is the only species that causes a high incidence of kidney stone formation in a rat model of pyelonephritis (59), and it causes more kidney stones and greater kidney damage than other urease-positive organisms such as P.
Is Proteus mirabilis normal flora?
Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris are commensals of the normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract, but they also can be found in water and soil. There are opportunistic pathogens that can infect the lungs, or wounds, and frequently cause urinary tract infections.
Does Proteus mirabilis always swarm?
mirabilis swarmer cell differentiation is induced by contact with a surface or viscous medium and is mediated through a torque-sensing flagellar dynamometer (2, 12). Paradoxically, individual swarmer cells by themselves do not have the ability to swarm.
Does Keflex treat Proteus mirabilis?
KEFLEX is indicated for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections, including acute prostatitis, caused by susceptible isolates of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.